Friday, October 27, 2017

Finding Financial Statements - Annual Report and Quarterly Report

In order to invest in stocks wisely you must be able to read these two financial reports, i.e. annual report and quarterly report. These financial statements are scorecards on how well the company performed and its financial strength/ positions. 

You can get the reports of companies listed on Bursa here
1. Annual report
2. Quarterly report

This is the full link of the Bursa Malaysia's website provide announcements of all listed companies: Company Announcements

For US stocks, you can usually get their released annual and quarterly reports from the Investor Relations section of their websites. For instance, Facebook Investor Relations, Apple Investor Relations, Microsoft Investor RelationsAlphabet Investor Relations, Amazon Investor Relations etc. It is easy to find them, just search Google with search terms like "facebook investor relations", "amazon investor relations", etc. Explore the IR section and you will be able to find their financial statements.


For quick reference to stocks and financial statistics of companies listed on Bursa Malaysia, I use "KLSE Screener". It is a little mobile phone app providing concise but surprisingly rich financial information of listed companies.

You can get the financial data of US's listed companies at various financial websites. Google Finance had stopped providing financial data. However you still can get such financial data from Nasdaq's website . Enter the symbols of the stocks and look at the left panel for "Income Statement". You will see pages with useful financial data like this.

For statistics, news, and market consensus, Yahoo Finance is the best place to go. For instance, Yahoo Finance page for Facebook, Yahoo Finance page for Microsoft, etc.


Lastly I wrote this post for my friends who made me realised that I first have to tell people where to find financial information before informing them how to use the financial information.

Saturday, May 21, 2016

Marco Holdings Berhad (MARCO, 3514) | Bursa Malaysia Market

Marco Holdings Berhad is a stock appeared in The Edge's list of Top 20 dividend stocks in Malaysia with 10 years of continuous dividends, profit, positive operating cash flows and positive free cash flow. It attracted my attention due to its stock price of RM0.16 and rolling 4 quarters dividend yield of 5.63%.

I take a look at its financial results.

Marco Holdings Berhad (MARCO, 3514) | Bursa Malaysia Market

Stock price of MARCO has been stagnant for sometime since. It looks like a "boring" company in a "boring" industry selling "boring" products, but it is financially well-managed and seemingly undervalued. 


Retail distributor of Casio's timepiece, calculator and other electronic gadgets.

Financial Performance

  • Profit margin: Good. Profit margin from 2012 to 2015 ranged between 11.8% to 12.6%. 
  • Growth: Estimate 11% per annum. Not spectacular but acceptable. Annual earnings growths for the 2014 and 2015 were 22.1% and 10.4% respectively. Growth for 2012 and 2013 hovered around 2%-3%. Growth from 2007 to 2012 ranged between 10.1% - 67.5%. So we can expect growth in the future. 
  • Net cash: Cash rich. No debt. Net cash as at FYE2015 is RM75.3 million which is 46% of shareholders' funds of RM163.4 million.
  • Cash flow: Well-managed inventory, debtors and creditors with each turnover less than 3 months. Net Cash Inflow From Operating Activities (CFOA) is lower than profit after tax due to growth. In general, positive and good CFOA. 
  • Free Cash Flow: Acceptable. No major cash outflow other than dividend and placement of funds to short term investments (which I consider as cash equivalent). 
  • Dividend per share is RM0.007 or 37% dividend payout. At current share price of RM0.16, dividend yield is 4.38%. It is higher than your fixed deposit rate.

Share Price & Valuation

Current price at RM0.16 with P/E of 8.57 and dividend yield of 4.38%.

P/E Ratio
Historically their P/E ratio (adjusted for change of shares structure) was high and gradually declined over the years. It hovered around 11x in the years 2011 - 2013. Today, it is only 8.57x. 

Save for the latest quarter, the company's Earnings Per Share (EPS) has been quietly improved over the years yet it stock price has been stagnant. 

EPS for year 2015 is RM0.0188. Based on Mar 2016 Quarterly Report announcement, despite 6% revenue growth the EPS of the first quarter dropped by 27%. Should the company manage to maintain the result of the next 3 quarters, the forecast EPS should be at around RM0.0175.

For a PE of 11x (when market sentiment turns better), the forecast stock price could possibly reaching RM0.195, an upside of 20% in 1 - 2 year.

What We Don't Know and What We Do know

I don't know much about the company and its business other than historical financial information from their announcements and annual reports. I am not sure of how Casio, the brand that they represent, is doing and will continue to do in this era of digital revolution packed with smart phones and innovative gadgets. I don't know their distribution relationship with Casio, etc.

I only know, if things as they are reflected in the financial reports and continue to be so, the stock maybe undervalued.

Strategies and Cash Management

Will I buy this stock at it current price of RM0.16?

The return can be good since it is a penny stock at RM0.16 per share only. Any fluctuation of share price can give good return on investment, ROI. Being a financially sound company, the downside is very little. RM0.16 is low enough. However, it has limited upside too. I don't see super good growth in the future. It is not an exciting stocks in terms of its growth in markets of calculators or watch or of Casio brand.

If I buy, I will buy for mid term capital gain hoping for recovery of stock market and improvement of valuation to 11x due to overall market sentiment. I should probably target for RM0.19 (20% return) within 1 or 2 years.

On dividend yield, there are other stocks with better yield and clearer growth direction. So dividend yield is not the main play.

As investor, money is our bullets. We have limited bullets and with opportunity cost. I may have to give up this undervalued opportunity and be more selective to look for another undervalued financially strong good stock with clear business direction of long term good growth.

But I will continue to keep an eye on its financial results.

Evernote helps you remember everything and get organized effortlessly. Download Evernote.

Monday, September 28, 2015

Company: Hovid Berhad (7023)

Well-managed growing company. Good net profit margin at 10.0% - 11.5%. Net cash. Current price RM0.44 is fair. Dividend yield of 3% is not really attractive at current market conditions. Be patient, buy on when opportunity of lower price arise.

Thursday, September 17, 2015

Company: Padini Holdings Berhad (7052)

The company has been generating profit and cash flow and delivering dividend consistently to the investors. I went through its annual financial statements and quarterly reports. I put my research in presentation slide format.

In general there are two parts:
  1. Performance, financial positions and risks of the company
  2. Share price and valuation

Monday, August 26, 2013

Company: Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad (2836)

When you scrutinize Carlsberg's annual report, you simply cannot avoid to notice its 10 years of healthy growth in revenue and profit. There was also a remarkable recovery story of profit margin since 2009 (9.8%) until 2012 (15.5%). Year 2012 was the first year that the company's profit margin surpassing its old profit margin of 15.2% in 2003.

Here are a few salient facts:
  • It pays most of its profit after tax to its shareholders as dividend. The two exception years in 2009 and 2010 were due to payment made for the acquisition of Singapore business. We can expect consistent dividend payment
  • There were reasonable growth in revenue, profit and dividend
  • In 2012, subsidiary in Singapore contributed 23% and 30% of overall revenue and profit respectively. Singapore's profit margin is higher than that in Malaysia. We simply cannot ignore the Company's business in Singapore's in our analysis.

10 year financial performance extracted from Carlsberg's Annual Report 2012

From the 10 Year Financial Summary extracted from its Annual Report, 2010 was a watershed year that we see significant improvement in almost all of its financial indicators, i.e. 31% revenue growth, 72% profit growth, 31.5% profit margin improvement to its double digit percentage of 12.9%, dividend growth, etc. There were two major events during these period with significant financial improvements:
  • The acquisition of Singapore subsidiary was completed in Oct 2009. Year 2010 was the first year that included full year performance of Singapore subsidiary
  • A new MD, Mr Soren Ravn, were appointed in March 2010. (He was transferred as Chief Executive Officer of Carlsberg Greater China in July 2013)

Financial Positions

The balance sheet was well managed. Despite the growth since 2009, trade debtors and inventory turnover improved!

Improved trade debtors and inventory turnovers despite significant growth since 2009.
A well managed balance sheet's items like trade debtors, inventory and creditors usually means:

  • it is unlikely that the company maniputes its income statements numbers. This means the profit figures are reliable as performance indicators.
  • operational management is good. (Therefore debts collection is quick, stocks level is low and payment to creditors is fast.)
  • Tight credit control

It indicates a really good and professional management team behind this company.

  • Positive cash flow from operations and after capital expenditure
  • Very little borrowings and only to facilitate short term working capital
  • Simple balance sheet that devoid of chance of manipulation

Why I follow this company?

  1. Consistent performance of profitability and growth for both revenue and profit.
  2. Professionally managed operations and finances that reflect in balance sheets.
  3. Strong and improving profit margin.
  4. Cash rich and cash generating. Pays most of their net profits as dividend to shareholders. 
  5. Sustainable and growing dividend at reasonably yield (4% as at 26/8/2013)
  6. Strong brand names
  7. Malaysia's demography, a nation with growing populations (include non Muslims)

What are the concerns or risks investing in this company:

  • 30% of profit came from Singapore's subsidiary, yet the profit margin from Singapore business fell to 20.1% in year 2012 from 22.0% of year 2011. (Malaysia profit margin is much lower at 12.7% and 13.9% for 2011 and 2012 respectively.)
  • The growth of Singapore business had slowed down in year 2012
  • Its business affects by general economy performance
  • Tiger, its competitor's brand, had been gaining ground
  • Its current valuation based on historical earning PE ratio is very high at 23.79
In a duopoly market, one cannot gain a full perspective of Carlsberg business and prospects without looking at its main competitor, i.e. GAB. But I will have to leave this part out until next time.

Segment results
I think this Company is worth following and that its shares are worth buying. The key point is, therefore, at what price?

The complicated issues in valuing Carlsberg stock are
  • Current PE is too high, but does it matter? As the dividend is being paid at 4% yield, sustainable and probably growing. 
  • The stock is a dividend play with growth factor. In dividend play, growth is the major factor in determine price and return. Can the growth continue? and at what rate? 
  • Major change in leadership in July 2013, can the good performance and trend continue?
And at this point, the market is expected to plunge within the next few months.

I will write the valuation analysis in my next post on Carlsberg. Meanwhile, Carlsberg will be in my watch list and I will continue to find pricing opportunity to buy into this stock.

Tuesday, July 16, 2013

Short-sellers rely on fundamental analysis!

Here is a very interesting article, "Those Evil Naked Short-Sellers Actually Trade On Fundamentals, Study Says" by Daniel Fisher.

It is through fundamental analysis that we can know the financial weakness of a company before the true picture is showed in income statements.

It is really not surprising that the short-sellers target on companies detected with obvious financial weakness before markets take note of the conditions. They are "evil" only because they detect and exploit the weaknesses hidden away from public.

They are the makers of efficient markets.

It is through fundamental analysis that we can make decisions (not short-selling, but avoiding) before the market price actions.

Other similar articles

Company: Pharmaniaga Bhd

This is a classic example of why we need to be more careful in reading financial statements.

The numbers and indicators above paint a positive picture of recent performance of the company:
  • Healthy growth in revenue, profits and earnings per share ("EPS")
  • Growing shareholders' equity and net assets per share
  • Growing dividend per share
  • Improving profit margin since 2010

Things seem perfect.

But if you analyze its Balance Sheets, it gives you a different picture.

Pay attention to the changes in balance sheet items.

The working capital in total, i.e. inventory ADD trade debtors LESS creditors (I+D-C), increased more than RM300million or by 576% since year ended 2010!
  • Inventory turnover deteriorate from 71 days in 2010 to 102 days in 2012. The company needed to fund the inventory, in year ended 2012, twice the size of that in year ended 2010. (2012: RM465million, 2010: RM230million)
  • Net profits for financial year 2011 and 2012 are RM52.8million and RM63.2million respectively. In total, RM116.0million. The working capital I+D-C increased by RM305.2million from 31 Dec 2010 to 31 Dec 2012. This means profits did not turn into real cash but merely used to accumulate inventory.
  • The revenue growth was in the range of 10% - 20%, but the working capital (I+D-C) growth was 366.9% in 2011 and 44.8% in 2012

In fact, the company turned from net cash position of RM69.9million in year end of 2010 to net debts of RM306.5million in year end of 2012. It was a deterioration of RM376.3million!

Large borrowings in year end of 2012.
EDR of 59:41 is beyond my comfort level of 70:30 to invest in the company's shares.

With deteriorating gearing ratio and bloating inventory, it is only natural for me to have doubts like
  • Is the profit real since the company generate little cash flow from operations? 
  • Any problem with inventory valuation? or any problem in manufacturing or planning that caused a high inventory book value?
  • With such gearing and cash flow, is current dividend payout sustainable?
  • Current trend of cash usage is definitely not sustainable, when will there be a reversal of trend?

In 2013 Quarter 1 results, the inventory level did improve a little. The net borrowings position improved marginally to RM304.3 million. The overall picture in Q1 2013 stayed the same.

As investor, we have limited bullets (limited cash available for investment). We need to be selective. There may be many good reasons or exciting growth stories of why the Company's balance sheet should be like this for just a while. But it is not important, because it means uncertainty. And that there are other listed companies that give a positive, crystal clear AND consistent picture of its financial affair, available in the stock markets.

I remind myself of my investment objectives:
  • There are other listed companies that shows growth, positive cash flow and with healthy gearing. So I don't need to jump into such uncertainty of outcome investing in this company
  • I am looking for Company with business that can sustain a growing dividend to its shareholders
As such, I am looking elsewhere and not dwelling into valuation of the shares.


Sunday, July 07, 2013

Fundamental analysis and value investing: from a book review

Charles Sizemore wrote a book review on Intermarket Analysis And Investing by Michael E.S. Gayed in Forbes.

He wrote, "Gayed addresses the strengths and weaknesses of each of the major schools of investing thought. For example, of fundamental analysis he writes that it is “more reliable than any other approach…tangible and logical.” But also acknowledging its shortcomings, he notes that 'fundamentals tend to lag behind the price action. The discounting mechanism of the market often senses evolving financial problems before the company actually discloses them.'"

I think this is a common misconception of fundamental analysis. In fundamental analysis, we don't wait for company's disclosures to know its financial problem. we can sense the company's financial problems easily and ahead of others by noticing its changes in balance sheet's items like inventory, receivable, payable, gearing, etc., its cash flow and the consistency of three elements in financial reporting, i.e. financial performance, changes in balance sheets and announced stories.

What we need is a complete analysis on balance sheets and cash flow statements to smell troubles ahead.

In fact, Daniel Fisher, another writer of Forbes wrote this article, "Those Evil Naked Short-Sellers Actually Trade On Fundamentals, Study Says", stated that the short-sellers rely on fundamental analysis to trade. They detect and exploit financial weaknesses of companies. It is not beautiful, but fundamental analysis allow them to act before market price action.

Balance Sheets' Items

The health of a company's business operations reflects in the management of inventory, receivable and payable. A good company with healthy operations shows a "thin" working capital items like inventory and receivables. The balance sheet of a company with healthy inventory turnover, prompt collections of account receivables and willingness of suppliers to provide longer financing reflects a small Net Current Asset's value of "Inventory ADD Account Receivables (Debtors) LESS Account Payable (Creditors)" ("I+D-C"). Consistent increase of this "I+D-C" value reflects deterioration of management performance, e.g. mismanagement or bad planning of inventory, raw materials, and problematic production processes, longer credit period to keep unhappy customers from leaving, non-collectible sales revenue, disputed sales, lacking clout on suppliers and is forced to pay cash for inventory due to bad reputation, etc.

A balance sheet with bulky inventory, bulky receivable, and small payable indicates either a mediocre company or a troubled company with manipulated income statements. Read here.

Fundamental analysis enabled you to avoid such company. Or alert the value investor early enough to sell the stocks before market price actions.

Cash flow

Has the company been generating positive operating cash flow? Has it been paying down its borrowings? Has the gearing less than 30% of its total assets? If the answers of any of the above are NO, we need to be alarmed.

Avoid or sell the stocks of the company that does not generate operating cash flow. In some cases, I even avoid those that generate positive operating cash flow but with negative net cash flow.

Opportunities in the stocks market are unlimited but our money is limited. Sell and run, if the company you invested in was not generating positive net cash flow. We don't have to wait. Whether there will be a financial problem in the future, it is irrelevant to value investors like us.

Announced Stories

We can estimate future performance from the announced statements and notes to the financial statements. I remember one of the stocks I held:
It was a listed company. In one of its quarterly reports it explained that the profit reduced as there were many festive holidays during the quarter and that the plant had already reached its full capacity. Six months down the road, when it announced the purchase of a new plant, I immediately knew that the profit was going to increase before the commission of new plant.
I just wish to make a point that by linking the financial numbers to Notes to the Financial Statements and announcements, we usually can see the underlying business progress. Sometimes, we can pick up things that missed by the management. We can "smell" what is coming before the market price actions. And this is fundamental analysis.


In true sense of value investing, we would have dump the stocks when its balance sheets reflect a mediocre operations management with lackluster performance, with or without its subsequent financial troubles. With such complete fundamental analysis, the actions of value investors (to sell/ to avoid) always come much earlier than the market price actions.

Relevant resources: